Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

Algia

State of pain.

Acystia

Congenital absence of urinary bladder

Abrachiocephaly

Congenital absence of arms and head

Acrodynia

Pain in the hands and feet

Algia

State of pain

Atactic

Difficulty in walking

Ablastin

An antibody that seems to inhibit reproduction of trypanosome; found in rats

Appendicitis

Inflammation of the appendix

Atherosclerosis

Disease of blood vessels characterized by deposition of fat on the inside of the walls of large to medium-sized arteries making them hard and brittle and prone to blockage

Axon

The single outlet from a nerve cell that carries electrical signals away from the cell.

Autotransfusion

Injection of a person’s own blood, taken out previously into his body during an operation

Autism

A mental disorder characterised by problems in social interaction, language and emotional expression. Autism is characterised by extreme adherance to an inflexible routine with stereotypical and repetitive behaviour

Audiogram

A graphic record of hearing measured at various frequencies to determine hearing loss.

Atrialseptal defect

a hole between the upper chambers of the heart.

Amyloidosis

A disease characterised by the accumulation of the amyloid protein in various organs and tissues of the body.

Amputation

The cutting off of a limb or a part of a limb. 2. In dentistry, removal of the root of a tooth.

Amenorrhoea

Absence or abnormal stoppage of the monthly periods in women.

Amblyopia

Poor vision caused by abnormal development of the vision areas of the brain mostly due to inadequate stimulation during early life.

Allergy

Hypersensitivity to a particular allergen (irritant) like dust or certain drugs, resulting in an increased reactivity to that allergen on future exposure.

Alimentary

Relating to food or nutrition.

Aging

The process of growing old, where damaged cells fail to be replaced in sufficient numbers and thus bodily degeneration occurs.

Avascular

Without blood or lymphatic vessels

Anhedonia

Absence of pleasure from the performance of activities that would ordinarily be pleasurable

Adenomegaly

Enlargement of a gland

Acardia

Congenital absence of the heart; a condition occurring in one member of monozygotic twins or in one member of conjoined twins when one of the pair partner monopolises the placental blood supply; can also occur in triplet pregnancies

Bariatrics

Branch of medicine concerned with the medical or surgical management of obesity and associated diseases

Ballismus

A type of involuntary movement affecting the limbs, sometimes only affecting one side of the body

Barotitis media

Inflammation of mucous membrane of middle ear caused by rapid changes in altitude and air pressure

Balanoplasty

Surgical reconstruction of glans penis

Balanoposthitis

Inflammation of the glans penis and prepuce

Balantidiasis

A disease caused by Balantidium coli; with symptoms of diarrhoea, dysentery, abdominal pain, and weight loss

Biopsy

The process of removing a mass of cells from patients body for finding out the disease or a problem.

Bilirubin

a yellow bile pigment; excess of which causes jaundice

Beriberi

A disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin B in diet

Bronchopneumonia

Acute swelling of the walls of the smaller bronchial tubes.

Bypass

To create new flow from one structure to the other through a channel.

Blood brain barrier (BBB)

A mechanism that prevents the passage of substances from the blood to brain.

Bronchiolitis

Inflammation of the broncioles (air passages), seen in case of lung infection

Barium

A metallic element; Insoluble salts of barium are often used in X-ray studies

Bronchoscope

An apparatus used for seeing the inside of the air passages either for diagnostic purposes or for the removal of foreign bodies.

Basic life support

Emergency first aid for the control of bleeding, treatment of shock, poisoning, injuries and wounds, and basic first aid.

Ballottement

An action used in physical examination to estimate the size of an organ , by a flicking motion of the hand or fingers similar to that involved in dribbling a basketball.

Ballismus

A type of involuntary movement affecting the limbs, sometimes only affecting one side of the body

Brucellosis

An infectious disease caused by the bacterium Brucella, characterized by fever, sweating,aches and pains and transmitted to humans by direct contact with diseased animals of through ingestion of infected meat.

Bacteriolyze

To cause the digestion or dissolution of bacteria

Bradycardia

Slowness of the heartbeat, usually defined as a rate under 50 beats/min in adults.

Blood group

A system of antigens under the control of closely linked allelic loci on the surface of the erythrocytes or red blood cells.

Bile

The yellowish brown or green fluid secreted by the liver; it aids in emulsification of fats, increases peristalsis and retards putrefaction.

Bursa

A closed sac or envelope containing fluid, usually found in areas subject to friction.

Bronchus

The windpipe or trachea divides into two parts, each of which is called bronchus.

Cochlear implants

Cochlear implants are devices inserted under the skull that directly translate sound into electrical impulses in the auditory nerves, and can help people hear when conventional hearing aids are no help.

Cerebral death

A condition characterised by permanent loss of brain functions- manifested by absence of reponses to external stimuli and reflexes.

Curettage

A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for the removal of abnormal growth of tissue, or to obtain material for diagnosis.

Culdoscopy

Introduction of an endoscope through the vaginal wall for seeing the rectovaginal pouch.

Cryothalamectomy -Cryoglobulinemia

The presence of abnormal quantities of cryoglobulin in the blood.

Creatine

A product of protein metabolism found in the muscles of man.

Craniectomy

Making a cut in the portion of the skull without replacement of the bone.

Colposcopy

Examination of the vagina and cervix by means of an illuminated instrument.

Colic

Relating to colon (large intestines).2.pain in the abdomen particularly in young infants, due to overfeeding and swallowing of air

Chloasma

An infection caused by Coccidiodesimmitis which effects mainly the respiratory tract, lungs and the lymph nodes, but in rare cases it may effect bones, joints and the skin.

Coagulopathy

A disease affecting the coagulability of blood

Cholecystoduodenostomy

Making a direct channel or link between the gallbladder and the duodenum

Caesarean

An operation for delivering a child by cutting through the wall of the abdomen and the uterus.

Cephalosporin

A family of antibiotics, substances that destroys microorganisms

Callosity

A hard, thick area of skin usually occuring in parts of the body subject to repeated pressure or friction.

Capillary

A tiny vessel carrying blood or lymph.

Cancer

Any growth formed by an abnormal and uncontrolled division of body cells that involves surrounding tissues or may spread to other parts of the body.

Calorie

A unit of heat content or energy; often used to measure energy value of food.

Cartilage

A firm flexible connective tissue lining the joints, also forming the ear

Cirrhosis

A chronic disease of the liver marked by the breakdown of the liver cells and scarring.

Cell

The smallest unit of living structure. 2. a small closed or partly closed cavity.

Cataract

A condition in which the lens of the eye becomes opaque resulting in blurred vision.

Cardiomegaly

Enlargement of the heart.

Carotid

A large artery in the neck that supplies blood to the head and face and is often used to check the pulse in an emergency situation.

Craniotomy

Opening into the skull.

Cornea

The transparent circular part of the front of the eyeball.

Contaminant

An impurity or an infectious agent.

Colloid

Glue like substance 2.a translucent, yellowish, gumlike substance found in the cells and tissues.

Colitis

Inflammation or swelling of colon or large intestines

Chorionic villus biopsy

sampling of the chorionic villi of a growing embryo for genetic analysis.

Calciuria

The excretion of calcium in urine.

Congenital

Existing from birth

Carotene

One of several orange coloured plant pigments present in carrots, tomatoes etc., a source of vitamin A

Coma aberration

Improper image formation or seeing due to faulty entrance of light rays in the eyes.

Delirium tremens

A state of confusion due to over activity of the nervous system in case of alcohol withdrawal.

Diuretic

Promoting the excretion of urine.

Defibrillator

A machine to correct abnormal heart rhythms

Dystrophy

A gradual degeneration of the structure or function of an organ due to improper nutrition.

Dysrhythmia

Disordered or abnormal rhythm.

Dysplasia

Incomplete or abnormal development of a part, system or region of the body

Dysmenorrhoea

Difficult and painful menstruation.

Dysfunction

Disordered or abnormal functioning of an organ

Dyscrasia

A morbid general state applied to diseases affecting the blood cells

Drug

An agent used in the prevention ,diagnosis ,alleviation or treatment of a disease.

Dose

The amount of a drug given at one time given at one time

Digestive

An agent that promotes digestion- breaking up of complex molecules into simple ones for suitable absorption from the intestine.

Diabetic diet

A dietary adjustment for patients with diabetes mellitus to decrease the need for insulin or oral medication and control weight by adjusting caloric and carbohydrate intake.

Diet

The kind of food that a person habitually eats

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes found in obese individuals over 40 years of age associated with reduced , normal or above-normal insulin production.

Diabetesinsipidus

A chronic excretion of large amounts of pale urine causing dehydration and excessive thirst caused by the deficiency of pituitary hormones.

Dextrocardia

A condition when the heart is on the right side of the chest rather than the left.

Diabetic amyotrophy

A form of muscle wasting in diabetes, usually seen in elderly patients, characterized by abrupt or gradual pain and weakness in the thighs.

Disease

An unhealthy condition of the body or the mind .

Dysarthria

A language disorder characterised by difficulty in speaking or forming words.

Dyspnoea

Difficulty in breathing.

Dyspepsia

Impaired stomach function characterised by burning, nausea and stomach pain.

Dysentery

A condition characterised by painful bowel movements, related to inflammation of the intestinal tract associated with diarrhoea,abdominal cramping and passing of mucous or blood with the stool

Drowning

Death caused by immersion in liquid due to lack of oxygen or cardiac arrest caused by sudden lowering of temperature.

Drain

To remove fluid from a cavity as it forms.

Dopamine

An intermediate in the synthesis of epinephrine.

Diuresis

The excretion of unusually large quantities of urine.

Diarrhoea

A condition of excessively frequent , loose bowel movements.

Diagnosis

A determination of the nature of a disease based on an analysis of signs and symptoms , medical history and laboratory tests.

Diabetes

A metabolic disorder characterised by excessive thirst and production of large amounts of urine.

Depression

A mental state characterised by feelings of sadness, despair and low self-esteem.

Euthanasia

A quiet, painless death better known as mercy killing. It is the intentional putting to death of a person with an incurable or painful disease as an act of mercy.

Emanotherapy

An obsolete treatment of various diseases

Eleopathy

A rare condition in which there is swelling of the joints

Electrodermal

Pertaining to electric properties of the skin

Electrocardiography

A method recording electrical currents traversing the heart muscle

Ectoanalgesia

Pain relief induced by the passage of an electric current

Ecchymosis

A purplish patch caused by extravasation of blood into the skin

Exostosis

A bony projection that grows in response to inflammation or repeated trauma.

Exenteration

Removal of the contents of a body cavity.

Epilepsy

A nervous disorder with convulsions and often loss of consciousness

Endocrine

Secreting into the blood stream ; the hormonal secretion of a ductless gland.

Encephalitis

An inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus and associated with headache and drowsiness leading to coma.

Endoscopic biopsy

Biopsy obtained by instruments passed through an endoscope or obtained by a needle introduced under endoscopic guidance.

Epidemic

A widespread occurrence of a disease in a community at a particular time

Electrophobia

Morbid fear of electricity

Electroneurolysis

Destruction of nerve tissue by electricity

Electrocardiograph

An instrument for recording the electrical activity of the heart

Ecthyma

A pyrogenic infection of the skin

Ectopia

Displacement or malposition of any organ or part of the body

Echocardiography

The use of ultra-sound in the investigation of the heart and great vessels and diagnosis of cardiovascular lesions

ESR

Abbreviation for erythrocyte sedimentation rate; a type of blood test.

Erythrocyte

A mature red blood cell.

Episiotomy

A surgical cut made at the opening of the vagina during child birth to aid delivery.

Epinephrine

A harmone secreted by the adrenal glands in response to stress, nerve stimulation and hypoglycemia.

Enteral

Within or by way of the intestine or gastrointestinal tract.

Enema

A rectal injection for clearing out the bowel or administering drugs

Endarteritis

Inflammation of the inner lining of an artery.

Electromyography

The recording of electrical activity associated with muscular activity , often used in diagnosis of muscular disorders.

Electrocardiogram

A record of the electric currents generated by a person’s heart

EEG

Abbreviation for electroencephalogram ; electroencephalography.

ECG

Abbreviation for electrocardiogram

Excision biopsy

A surgical cut in the tissue for examination in such a manner that the entire lesion or affected area is removed.

Epidural anaesthesia

Numbness induced by injection of a drug in the lower back area usually during childbirth.

Emphysema

An enlargement of the air sacs of the lungs causing breathlessness ; a swelling caused by the presence of air in the connective tissues of the body.

Ear drum

The membrane of the middle ear.

Fracture

A breakage of a bone or cartilage.

Forceps

A surgical instrument used for grasping and holding.

Flexion

The condition of being bent, of a limb or a joint.

Fistula

An abnormal or surgically made passage between two hollow organs.

Filariasis

A disease caused by the presence of filarial worms in the lymph vessels.

Fasciectomy

Process for removing or cutting of fascia.

Ferrugination

Deposition of minerals like iron in the walls of small blood vessels.

Fatality

A condition, disease or disaster ending in death.

Furunculosis

A diseased condition in which boils appear.

Frostbite

Injury to body tissues due to freezing often resulting in death of tissue.

Fatigue

A state of tiredness of body and mind after a period of prolonged stress and work

Fasciculus

A bundle of muscle, nerve or connective tissue fibres

Fine needle biopsy

The aspiration and removal of tissue or suspensions of cells through a small needle for diagnosis.

Fasciculation

Spontaneous contraction of bundles of skeletal muscle fibres resulting in a localized twitching which can be seen under the skin but does not produce movement at a joint

Fenoprofen calcium

A pain killer used for treatment of mild to moderate pain as in osteoarthritis.

glandular fever

Glandular fever is an infectious disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus small amounts of which are present in the saliva

gastromyxorrhoea

excessive secretion of mucous in the stomach.

Gastrochronorrhoea

excessive continuous gastric secretion

Galactorrhoea

continued discharge of milk from the breasts between intervals of nursing or after the child has been weaned.

Gastroatonia

loss of tone in the stomach muscles.

Glucose

a simple sugar, which is an important energy source in living organisms that is obtained from the breakdown of carbohydrates.

Goitre

a swelling of the neck resulting from enlargement of the thyroid gland.

Glomerulus

a cluster of small organisms , tissues or blood vessels esp. of the capillaries of the kidney

Genetics

he study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics.

Gastroenterology

the medical specialty concerned with the function and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, including stomach, intestines, and associated organs.

general anaesthesia

controlled loss of sensation in the entire body associated with loss of consciousness after using medicines

gestational age

the developmental age of the foetus counted from the day of the woman’s last menstrual period.

Geriatric

Pertaining to old age

Gastropagus

conjoined twins united at the abdomen.

Gastroileostomy

a surgical joining of stomach to ileum, the last part of the small intestine.

Gastroenterocolitis

inflammatory disease involving the stomach and intestines.

Glucagon

a hormone formed in the pancreas, which aids the breakdown of glycogen

Gestation

the process of carrying in the womb between conception and birth.

Gamete

a mature germ cell able to unite with another in sexual reproduction.

Glaucoma

an eye condition with increased pressure within the eye ball, causing gradual loss of sight

Hypoglycaemia

a low blood sugar level (below 80mg/100ml) often due to an excessive insulin dose

Haemoptysis

coughing up blood.

Hypertension

high blood pressure.

Hysteria

wild uncontrollable emotion or excitement.

Hypoxia

a deficiency of oxygen reaching the tissues.

Hypothermia

a body temperature significantly below 98.6 degree Fahrenheit.

Hyperactivity

a state of general restlessness or excessive movement.

Hydrocele

a collection of fluid in a sacculated cavity, commonly the scrotum

Homophobia

irrational fear of homosexual feelings, thoughts or persons.

HIV

Abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus

Hepatitis

inflammation of the liver cells due to viral infections or toxic agents

Haemorrhoid

swollen veins at or near the anus, piles.

Haemoconcentration

decrease in the volume of plasma in relation to the number of red blood cells.

Hemiparesis

weakness affecting one side of the body.

Hyperglycaemia

a blood sugar level above normal (above 180mg/100ml) indicative of diabetes mellitus

Haematuria

blood in the urine.

haemorrhagic stroke

sudden bleeding into or around the brain.

Hypermetropia

the condition of the eye in which rays from a long distance focus behind the retina; also known as long sightedness.

Hysterectomy

removal of the uterus.

Hypotonia

reduced muscle tension in any part; relaxation of the arteries

Hypotension

reduced pressure of any kind commonly low blood pressure

Hyperplasia

an increase in the number of normal cells in a tissue or organ whereby the bulk of it may get increased.

Hypercholesterolaemia

presence of an abnormally large quantity of cholesterol in the blood.

Hyperalgesia

extreme sensitivity to painful stimuli.

Hormone

a chemical substance formed in one organ and carried in the blood to another organ or part to stimulate cells or tissues into action.

Hernia

protrusion of a part or structure through the tissues normally containing it.

habitual abortion

loss of three or more consequent pregnancies before 20 weeks of pregnancy

intertrigo

erythema or eczema that affects apposed skin surfaces

insomnia

inability to sleep.

Ischaemia

reduction in blood supply.

Interpalpebral

between the eyelids.

Intention

a process or operation in surgery.

Innidiation

multiplication of abnormal cells in a location to which they have been transported by means of blood stream.

Infestation

development on the body of a pathogenic agent.

Injury

a wound.

Ingestion

introduction of food and drink into the stomach.

Infiltration

the act of permeating or penetrating into a substance, cell or tissue; of gases, fluids or matter held in solution.

Infantilism

a state marked by slow development of mind and body.

Immunity

the status of being free from acquiring a given infectious disease.

Illumination

throwing light on the body or a part or into a cavity for diagnostic purposes.

incision biopsy

removal of only a part of lesion by incising or making a cut into it.

incubation period

the development of an infectious disease in a host from the time the infecting agent is introduced in the body until the first clinical features manifest themselves

inflammation

body’s reaction to injury, resulting in signs of redness, heat, swelling and tenderness

insulinaemia

abnormally high concentrations of insulin in the blood

insulin

a hormone produced by the pancreas regulating the amount of glucose in the blood. The lack of this hormone causes diabetes.

Intolerance

abnormal metabolism, excretion or other disposition of a given substance

Injection

introduction of a medicinal substance or nutrient material into the muscle or vein.

Influenza

a highly contagious virus infection causing fever and severe body ache.

Infection

invasion of the body with organisms that have the potential to cause disease

Immunodeficiency

a condition resulting from a defective immune mechanism

Ileum

the third and the last portion of the small intestine.

Janiceps

conjoined twins having their two heads fused together, with the faces looking in opposite directions.

Juxtaposition

a position side by side.

Juice

a digestive secretion.

Jejunoplasty

a corrective surgical procedure on the jejunum.

Jejunum

a portion of the small intestine.

Jaundice

a condition with yellowing of the eyes or the skin caused by a liver disease

Jugulate

kill by cutting the throat.

Junction

the point or surface of union of two parts, mainly bones or cartilages.

Joint

a place of union, usually more or less movable, between two or more bones.

korsakoff's syndrome

an alcohol related brain-injury syndrome, resulting in loss of memory.

Keratopathy

any corneal disease, damage, dysfunction or abnormality.

Keratitis

inflammation of the cornea

Kala-azar

tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite leishmaniadonovani

Kangarroo care

the use of skin- to – skin contact between the premature but stable infant and parent or caregiver

Kawasaki disease

a rare, acute inflammatory disorder of young children

Keratectomy

excision of a portion of the cornea

Keratin

an albuminoid substance which forms the principal constituent of all horny tissues

Keratomycosis

fungal infection of the cornea.

Kerni’s sign

the sign of meningitis

Ketonuria

the presence of ketones in urine

Kalaemia

the presence of potassium in the blood.

Kleptomania

an irresistible urge to steal when there is often know need and no particular desire for the objects.

Kinesitherapy

physical therapy involving motion and motion exercises.

Kyphosis

excessive outward curvature of the spine

Keratoplasty

any surgical modification of the cornea; the transparent layer in the eye

Keloid

fibrous tissue formed at the site of a scar or injury.

Kwashiorkor

condition of protein malnutrition occurring in children

Kyphoscoliosis

an abnormal curvature of the spine in which there forward and sideways displacement

Kineplasty

plastic amputation

Lymphocytes

a leukocyte of blood, bone marrow, and lymphatic tissue that play a role in both cellular and humoral immunity

Laryngitis

inflammation of the larynx, the organ of voice production.

Leukemogenic

pertaining to the causation, induction and development of leukaemia

Lactosuria

excretion of lactose in the urine.

Lymphoma

any malignant tumour of the lymph nodes.

Lumen

the space in the interior of a tubular structure, such as a blood vessel or the intestine.

Lanour

parturition or child birth

Labyrinthectomy

excisition of the labyrinth

Laceration

a wound with torn and ragged edges

Libido

conscious or unconscious sexual desire.

Leukaemia

a cancerous disease in which the bone marrow and the other blood forming organs produce increased numbers of abnormal leucocytes.

Ligation

the act of binding or annealing.

Leprosy

a contagious disease that affects the skin, mucous membranes and nerves causing disfigurement.

Laparotomy

a surgical incision into the abdominal cavity for diagnosis.

Lipoma

an abnormal growth of fat cells which may occur on various places such as skin or intestines

Lysis

the disintegration of a cell.

Ligament

short band of tough flexible fibrous connective tissue linking bones together

Leucocytosis

an abnormally large numbers of leucocytes or white blood cells in the blood as observed in infections

Laryngoscopy

inspection of the larynx by means of a lighted instrument called laryngoscope

Lacrimation

secretion of tears

Lactation

the process of milk segregation by the mammary gland

Lamina

a bony plate or layer

Leucopoiesis

the formation of weight blood cells

Macronutrient

an essential nutrient that has large minimal daily requirement

Macula

a spot on discoloured area of the skin

Malaria

a serious infectious disease, characterised by periodic chills, fever, sweating and splenomegaly

Manic

pertaining to mania

Meningitis

an inflammation of the coverings of the brain

mastitis

inflammation of the breast

Mantoux test

a skin test used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis

Malignant

cancerous.

Mycetoma

chronic infection involving the subcutaneous tissue, skin and bone

Mortuary

relating to death or burial, a place where dead bodies are kept before cremation.

Morbidity

a diseased state.

Midwife

a person trained to assist women in child birth.

Metrorrhagia

any irregular bleeding from the uterus between the periods.

Melioidosis

an infectious disease of rodents in India and Southeast Asia that is communicable to the human beings.

Medulloblastoma

a cancerous brain tumour consisting of small, poorly differentiated cells.

medicine, tropical

the branch of medicine concerned with diseases mainly of parasitic origin in areas having a tropical climate.

Mediastinum

a septum or a wall between two parts of an organ or a cavity, usually the chest.

Malabsorption

imperfect or inadequate absorption of nutrients from the intestines.

Megacolon

a condition of extreme dilation of the colon or large intestine.

Munchausen syndrome

a condition in which the patient fabricates an illness to attract medical attention. Sufferers seek numerous medical consultations with different doctors.

multiple sclerosis

a disorder of the central nervous system resulting in abnormal hardening of the tissues in the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms include vision loss, speech disorders and bladder abnormalities.

Myopia

condition of the eye in which rays from a distance focus in front of the retina, also called short sightedness.

Myxoedema

reduced thyroid function, resulting in thickening of the skin, weight gain, mental dullness, loss of energy and sensitivity to cold

Migraine

a recurrent throbbing headache usually on one side of the head, often accompanied by nausea and disturbance of vision.

Microalbuminuria

a slight increase in urinary albumin excretion.

Marasmus

starvation occuring in children due to prolonged deficiency of proteins and calories in the diet.

Mania

an abnormal love for or morbid impulse towards some specific object, place or action.

Macrophage

a cell found in many tissues in the body which plays an important role in the defence mechanism of the body.

Nebuliser

a device powered by an air pump, which converts a liquid to a fine spray for inhalation, often used by asthma sufferers

Nutrition

the process of providing or receiving nourishing substances.

Neurosyphilis

infection of the central nervous system by syphilis causing bacteria

Nephrotoxic

toxic to kidney cells

Nymphomania

an insatiable impulse to engage in sexual behaviour in a female.

Neurosis

a psychological disorder characterised by anxiety.

Neuropeptide

any of a variety of proteins found in neural tissue

neuropathy, diabetic

a term for any diabetes related disorder of the nervous system.

Neuron

the nerve cell, the functional unit of the nervous system

Neuromuscular

referring to the relationship between nerve and muscle.

Neurology

the branch of medical science concerned with the various nervous systems.

Neuroendocrine

a group of cells that release a hormone into the circulating blood in response to a neural stimulus.

Nephrostomy

diversion of urine involving placement of a tube within the kidneys in order to provide urinary drainage directly to an external urine collection appliance.

Nephritis

inflammation of the kidneys.

Nephrectomy

removal of a kidney

Neovascularisation

growth of blood vessels in tissues not containing them.

Neonate

the period from birth to the first 28 days of life

Narcolepsy

sleep disorder that usually appears in young adulthood, consisting of recurrent sleep periods during the day and often disrupted sleep at night.

Natriuresis

urinary excretion of sodium.

needle biopsy

any method in which the specimen is removed by scratching it by an appropriate needle that pierces the skin, or the external surface of the organ, and into the underlying tissue to be examined.

Neurochemistry

the science concerned with the chemical aspects of nervous system structure and function.

Necrobiosis

normal death of cells or tissues as a result of changes associated with development, aging or use.

Nystagmus

involuntary rhythmic movement of the eye balls.

Nocturia

purposeful urination at night, after waking from sleep.

Neuroblastoma

a highly cancerous tumour of undifferentiated small cells.

Osteochondroma

a benign tumor of the bone

Osteophytes

Osteophytes are extra bone the body produces and deposits in an arthritic joint to stop its movement.

Odontotomy

cutting into the crown of a tooth.

Ovulation

release of an ovum from the ovary.

Ovary

one of the paired female reproductive glands containing the ovum or germ cells

Otoscopy

examination of the ear, especially of the ear drum.

Osteoporosis

condition of brittle and fragile bones caused by loss of bony tissue, especially as a result of hormonal changes or deficiency of calcium and vitamin D.

Osteopathy

any disease of the bone.

Osteoarthritis

degenerative disease of joint cartilage especially in the elderly.

Ophthalmoplegia

paralysis of one or more of the eye muscles.

Omphalitis

inflammation of the umbilicus

Oncology

the scientific and medical study of tumour

Operation

a surgical procedure in which instruments or hands are used by the operator upon a part or organ of the body.

Ophthalmology

the study of eye and its disease

Optometry

assessing and measuring visual acuity for the fitting of glasses or contact lenses to correct visual defects

Osteoperiostitis

inflammation of bone and periosteum

Ovarian

relating to an ovary

Ovary

one of a pair of glandular organs in the female pelvics

Oviduct

a uterine tube

Oxytocic

any drug that stimulates uterine contractions and may be used to hasten delivery.

Pessaries

a device that is placed intravaginally to support the uterus or other pelvic structures

Psychosomatic

bodily symptoms associated with a psychological disorder

Pediculosis

infestation of the skin by the louse

pyloric stenosis

narrowing of the opening from the stomach to the duodenum especially by muscular thickening since birth or scarring resulting from a peptic ulcer

pyrosis

burning sensation in the lower part of the chest, combined with the return of gastric acid to the mouth

pylorus

the opening from the stomach into the duodenum.

Pyelography

radiologic study of the kidney, ureters and the urinary bladder using a contrast agent

Procedure

act or conduct of diagnosis, treatment.

Pressure

a stress or force acting in any direction against resistance.

Placenta

flattened circular organ in the uterus of pregnant women, nourishing and maintaining the foetus through the umbilical cord and expelled after birth.

Periosteum

a membrane enveloping the bones where no cartilage is present.

Pericranium

the membrane enveloping the skull.

Pathognomonic

characteristic or indicative of a disease.

Periodontist

a person specializing in the branch of dentistry concerned with the structures surrounding and supporting the teeth.

Phlebitis

nflammation of a vein.

palliative care

care aimed at minimising pain and suffering when cure is not possible

pyuria

presence of pus in the urine.

Pyrogen

a fever-inducing agent produced by bacteria, moulds and viruses.

Pulse

a rhythmical throbbing of the arteries as blood is propelled through them.

Premedication

administration of drugs prior to anaesthesia to reduce apprehension and produce sedation.

Polyneuropathy

a disease process involving a number of peripheral nerves.

Poison

any substance either taken internally or applied externally , that is injurious to health or dangerous to life.

Pneumonia

a bacterial inflammation of one or both lungs causing the air sacs to fill with pus and become solid.

Plague

any disease of wide prevalence or of excessive mortality.

Phonocardiograph

an instrument utilizing microphones, amplifiers and filters for graphically recording the heart sounds

Peritoneum

the double membrane lining the cavity of the abdomen.

Pericardiocentesis

needle or catheter drainage of fluid from the pericardium, the membrane covering the heart

Penotomy

cutting of the penis.

Pelvis

a basin-shaped cavity at the lower end of the trunk.

Pathology

the medical science concerned with all aspects of a disease.

Pathogenesis

the pathologic or biochemical mechanism resulting in the development of a disease.

Pasteurisation

the process of partial sterilisation by heating.

Pancreas

a gland behind the stomach secreting insulin into the blood and producing a digestive fluid

pernicious anaemia

an anaemic condition usually occuring later in life due to decreased absorption of Vitamin B12 by the body. It is characterized by erosion of the stomach lining, weakness, faintness, diarrhoea and lack of appetite

psychodrama

a form of psychotherapy in which personality structure and emotional conflicts are explored through dramatization.

Psychology

the science concerned with the behaviour of humans and related physical and mental processes.

Progesterone

a steroid hormone released by the ovary which stimulates the preparation of the uterus for pregnancy

Prostatectomy

removal of the prostate

Plasma

the fluid portion of the blood in which corpuscles are suspended

Platelet

a disc- shaped structure present in the blood and concerned in the process of clotting

Q fever

An common illness causing symptoms similar to influenza

Quackery

a false claim to have the ability to diagnosis and treat disease

Quadrantectomy

a surgical procedure that involves the removal of tissue in one quadrant of a breast in order to treat breast cancer.

Quadriceps muscle

a muscle that four distinct parts that is located at the front of the thigh and straightens the knee.

Quadriparesis

weakness of the muscles in all four limbs and the trunk

Quadriplegia

paralysis of all four limbs and the trunk

Quickening

the fetal movements felt by pregnant women, usually after about 18 week’s gestation

Quinolone drugs

a group of antibiotic drugs, often called antibacterial, that are used to treat bacterial infections.

Radiation

emission of rays from a radioactive substance.

Rabies

a contagious and fatal viral disease especially of dogs, transmissible through the saliva to humans and causing convulsions and death.

Rumination

a disorder of infancy characterized by repeated regurgitation of food, with weight loss or failure to thrive, developing after a period of normal functioning.

Rouleaux

an aggregate of red blood cells stacked like a pile of coins.

Root

the primary or beginning portion of any part, as of a nerve at its origin from the brain stem or the spinal cord.

Rheumatism

any disease marked by inflammation and pain in the joints, muscles or fibrous tissues, esp. rheumatoid arthritis.

Rhabdomyolysis

a disease involving destruction of the skeletal muscles.

Retinopathy

degenerative disease of the retina as in diabetes.

Retina

a layer at the back of the eyeball sensitive to light and triggering nerve impulses via the optic nerve to the brain where the visual image is formed.

Respiration

the act of breathing; the process involving the release of energy and carbon dioxide from the oxidation of complex organic substances.

Resection

a procedure for removal of parts of an organ.

Reproduction

the total process by which organisms produce offspring.

Relaxation

loosening, lessening of tension in a muscle.

Receptor

a structural protein molecule on the cell surface or within that binds it to a specific factor, such as a drug, hormone or other chemical agent.

Ramus

one of the primary divisions of a nerve or blood vessel

Radius

the outer and shorter of the two bones of the forearm

Radiography

examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of x-rays and recording the findings on a photographic film.

Radiocinematography

taking a picture of the movements of organs or other structures by x-ray examination

Retinoblastoma

a malignant tumour of the retinal cells.

Radiology

the science of radiation using X ray and other allied imaging techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of disease

Radiotherapy

a method of treating disease and eradicating tumour cells by aiming to deliver a therapeutic dose of radiation while preserving normal tissue function and structure

Rhinoplasty

a plastic operation on the nose, repairing a part of or forming an entirely new nose.

sjogren's syndrome

an autoimmune disorder with dry mouth and eyes

sinus tachycardia

a rapid heart rate due to acceleration of the sinus rate.

Seizure

a sudden attack of a nervous disorder with convulsions and often loss of consciousness.

Suture

the joining of the edges of a wound or incision by stitching.

Stroke

any acute clinical event, related to impairment of circulation to the brain that lasts more than 24 hours.

Stricturoplasty

surgical procedure for widening a segment of intestine that involves incision and closing in opposite directions.

Stress

a pressure or tension exerted on an object.

Stethoscope

an instrument used for listening to the sounds of the heart, lungs and intestines.

Steroid

a group of organic compounds with a characteristic structure of four rings of carbon atoms, such as some hormones

Sternum

the breastbone.

Sterilization

the act or process by which an individual is rendered incapable of fertilization or reproduction as in vasectomy.

Stenosis

narrowing of any tubular structure in the body like intestine, artery or ureter.

Splenectomy

removal of the spleen.

Schizophrenia

a mental disease marked by a breakdown in the relation between thoughts, feelings and actions, frequently accompanied by delusions and retreat from social life.

Saliva

digestive liquid secreted into the mouth by glands to provide moisture and facilitate chewing and swallowing.

Symptom

a change in the physical or mental condition of a person, regarded as evidence of a disease.

Syndrome

the aggregate pattern of symptoms and signs associated with a disease process.

Spirometer

any device used for measuring flows and volumes inhaled and exhaled by the lungs, thus assessing lung function

Scapula

the large flat triangular bone forming the shoulder blade

Serology

the scientific study of serum

SGA

small for gestational age

SGOT

serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, an enzyme excreted by damaged heart muscle.

SGPT

serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, an enzyme excreted by parenchymal cell of the liver

Sinusitis

inflammation of the lining of a sinus, especially applied of the bony cavityof the face.

Theinism

chronic poisoning resulting from tea-drinking, characterized by palpitation, nervousness and headache.

Typhoid

an infectious bacterial disease with high fever and severe intestinal irritation.

Tumourigenesis

production of a new growth.

Tumour

swelling from an abnormal growth of tissue.

Trauma

an injury, physical or mental.

Transplant

to transfer from one part to another.

Tracheostomy

an operation to make an opening into the trachea or the wind pipe.

Trachoma

a contagious disease of the eye with inflammed small nodules on the inner surface of the lids.

Torticollis

a contraction or shortening of the muscles of the neck.

Thyroid

a large ductless gland found in the neck, secreting a hormone which regulates growth and development.

Thymus

an organ situated in the neck, producing lymphocytes for immune response.

Thrombus

a clot that may be attached to the vessel or heart wall without obstructing the lumen

Thalassaemia

an inherited disorder of haemoglobin metabolism in which there is impaired production of one or more polypeptide chains of globin, resulting in severe anaemia.

Tetany

a clinical syndrome characterized by muscle twitches, cramps, spasms and seizures.

Telelectrocardiogram

an electrocardiogram recorded at a distance from the subject being tested; eg. the electrocardiogram obtained through telephone.

Tachycardia

rapid beating of the heart, over 90beats/min. in adults.

Thrombocytopenia

an increase in the number of platelets in the blood

Traumatology

The branch of surgery that deals with injured patients, usually on an emergency basis. Patients who have suffered significant physical trauma, as from a car accident, may be cared for in a traumatology unit.

Thrombocytopaenia

a condition in which there is an abnormally reduced number of platelets in the blood.

Tracheobronchitis

inflammation of the lining of the trachea and bronchi, both parts of the air passages to the lungs.

throat, sore

a condition characterized by pain or discomfort on swallowing; it may be due to inflammation of the pharynx or larynx.

Taxonomy

a systematic classification of living things or organisms.

Urticarial

an eruption of itching due to allergy to foods or drugs, physical agents or psychic stimuli.

Urethra

the canal leading from the bladder, discharging the urine externally.

ulcer, decubitus

a chronic ulcer that appears on pressure areas of skin, in patients confined to bed or otherwise immobilized.

Urine

the fluid containing dissolved waste substances excreted by the kidney.

Ureter

the duct by which urine passes from the kidney to the urinary bladder.

Ultrasonography

an investigation to locate and measure deep structures inthe body by measuring the reflection or transmission of high frequency or ultrasonic waves.

ulcerative colitis

a chronic disease characterized by ulcers in the large intestine, presenting with loose stools, blood and mucous.

uric acid

a crystalline acid forming a constituent of urine.

Urea

a soluble nitrogenous waste compound excreted by the kidney in the urine.

UTI

abbreviation for urinary tract infection.

Urethritis

inflammation of the urethra.

Urachus

remnant stalk of the embryo connecting the urinary bladder to the umbilicus.

Ulcer

an open sore on the external or internal surface of the body, often forming pus.

Uterus

a triangular, hollow, muscular organ situated in the pelvic cavity between the bladder and the rectum

Urology

the study of disease of the urinary tract

Urethritis

inflammation of the

Vulva

the external genitalia of the female.

volvulus

a twisting of the intestine causing obstruction.

vitiligo

the appearance on otherwise normal skin of white patches of varied sizes, often symmetrically distributed and bordered by areas of increased pigmentation.

Vitamin

one of a group of organic substances, present in minute amounts in natural foodstuffs, that are essential to normal metabolism.

Virus

a microscopic organism multiplying in living cells and causing diseases.

viability

capability of living.

Vaginitis

inflammation of the vagina caused by microorganism

vertebra

each segment of the backbone.

Ventricle

a cavity, as of the brain or heart.

ventilator

respirator, a machine to assist or artificially take over breathing.

vein

a blood vessel carrying blood towards the heart.

vector

a carrier of disease.

VDRL

abbreviation for Venereal Disease Research Laboratories.

Vasoconstriction

narrowing of the blood vessels.

vasectomy

the surgical removal of part of each vas deferens as a means of permanent sterilization.

valve, tricuspid

the valve closing the opening between the right auricle and ventricle of the heart.

valve, pulmonary

the valve at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle.

valve, mitral

the valve closing the opening between the auricle and ventricle of the left side of the heart.

vaginosis

disease of the vagina.

vagina

the birth canal in the female

vaccine, measles, mumps and rubella

a triple combination of live measles, mumps and rubella viruses in a suspension, used for immunization against the respective diseases.

vaccine

a preparation used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity from diseases.

wheeze

to breathe with difficulty, with a whistling sound.

WBC

abbreviation for white blood cell.

Wound

caused by injury or operation

Whipple’s disease

an extremely rare disorder also called intestinal lipodystrophy, that can affected many organs, the heart, lungs, eyes and brain can also be affected

Windpipe

Another name of trachea

Weil’s disease

another name for leptospirosis

Wilm’s tumour

A type of kidney cancer also called nephroblastoma

Wrist

the joint between the hand and the arm that allow the hands to be bentforward and backward relative to the arm and also to be moved side to side.

Worm infestation

Several types of worm, or their larva, existing as parasites of human

xerostomia

dryness of the mouth due to decreased secretion of saliva.

Xenophonia

a speech defect marked by an alteration in accent.

X ary

a form of electronic radiation short wavelength and high energy. X ray are widely used in medicine for diagnosis and treatment.

Xylometazoline

a decongestant drug used in the form of a spray or drops to relieve nasal congestion caused by a common cold
excessive dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea resulting in loss of lustre.

xeromenia

a term for the occurrence of usual symptoms of the menstrual period without any show of blood

yellow fever

An infectious disease of short duration and variable severity that is caused by a virus transmitted by mosquitos

Yttrium

a very rare metal that, in its radioactive form, is sometimes used in cancer therapy and so treat joint affected by arthritis

Zygomatic arch

The arch of bone, commonly known as cheek bone, located in either side of skull just below the eye socket

Zinc

A trace element that is essentials for normal growth, the development of reproductive organs, normal functioning of the prostate gland, healing of wounds and the manufacture of the proteins and nucleic acids in the body.

Zoledronic acid

a bisphosphonate drug used to treat various bone disorder.

Zolpidem

a drug used in the short term treatment of Insomnia